Monday, May 25, 2020
Running Header: Information Technology Proposal Information Technology Proposal Darren Brown April 16, 2006 To: Director of Information Technology at Riordan Manufacturing From: Darren Brown, Information Technology Systems consultant Date: April 16, 2006 Subject: Information Technology Proposal As an Information Technology Systems consultant for Fortune 500 and 1000 companies, I have completed a review of your organization s current software and hardware systems and determined that with some changes Riordan Manufacturing will be able to exceed its current organizational goals and maintaining its place as the industry leader in identifying industry trends. The current network architecture that exist at RiordanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The MRP is utilized for manufacturing, inventorying, and shipping. This system and data is just as important as the ERP. Both are critical software components to Riordan Manufacturing success. After reviewing the existing hardware and software being utilized, I have concluded that Riordan Manufacturing must make changes to some hardware, software, and procedures affecting IT to be able to meet it s current goals and expectation. To be able to do this, Riordan Manufacturing must upgrade outdated equipment, upgrade unsupported operating systems and applications, and consolidate databases and increase productivity. Some of the hardware that exists at Albany and Pontiac sites needs upgrades to increase the productivity of the plants. The Albany site can change its structure to mirror the Headquarter with a 100 base T Ethernet with switches and reduce the amount of hardware and connections. The Pontiac site needs to upgrade to CAT 5 cabling to reduce data transmission degradation. Next, replace the hubs, patch panels with switches, and run a 100 base T Ethernet. Furthermore, both sites need to upgrade to a full T-1 connection to support the data transmission speed to headquarters. Software at both the Albany and Pontiac sites need to be upgraded due to compatibility issues with other sites and the fact that the software is no longer supported by the vendor. Both sites use WIN NT for the operating systems for their network and ExchangeShow MoreRelatedHrm 312 : Spring 20171614 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Information Technology has grown in popularity and has advanced over the years. Information Technology is used in a wide number of different fields, one of which includes Human Resource Management. As of 2017, all the information weÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever needed or wanted to know can be searched and found online. With all of this information at our fingertips, we as a society have become more advanced. However, Information Technology has its opportunities and challenges. The opportunities of Information TechnologyRead MoreCase1LastMileCopy1503 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages One of the two proposals that were on the table for strategic partnership was from Midwest Technologies Inc. The company is a large defense contractor and advanced technology supplier to many industries. They provide their advanced technology products to the automotive, aerospace, and information technology markets worldwide. The company is very large in scale and has been at the forefront of some of the significant technologies of the last hundred years. Midwest TechnologiesÃ¢â¬â¢ mission is to Ã¢â¬Å"accomplishRead MoreThe Information Flow Of E Commerce1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe above figure indicates how the information flow takes place in an e commerce environment from the user in terms of his queries regarding the product catalog, Its attributes like price, description or part number through an interface and also how the selling enterprise 2 can organize its activities of ordering, inventory, sales. finance through efficient use of digital technology. Pros and Cons The general advantages that it has yielded to the businesses can be seen in terms of the enhancedRead MoreA Basic Understanding Of Network Competencies Essay1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescompetencies is necessary to succeed in most technology fields and it is a foundational requirement for roles that deal directly with network communications. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s connected world of the cloud, apps that depend on internet connectivity, and even thermostats that can have their temperature set across the internet, the need to understand how networking works is expanding beyond the traditional roles of Network Administrators, Network Engineers, and information security professionals to developers, systemsRead MoreAssignment 1 Cs 782964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages------------------------------------------------- 1. Introduction In order to ensure compatibility (conjugation) and information security, harmonization of existing and emerging government information systems and information resources, Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated January 16, 2004 N 44 On the National operator in the field of Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan was introduced National Information Technologies Joint-stock Company was founded on April 4, 2000 called Ã¢â¬Å"NITECÃ¢â¬ with 100% participation andRead MoreCisco System Case Study1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesits products line. Cisco used information technology as a strategic asset than as a strategic liability (Weill Ross, 2009). IT revolution in Cisco has given huge cost savings for the company, nearly $506 million annually by delivering the products via internet. This clearly indicates the IT-Savvy companyÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Key Factors differentiate Cisco as an Information age company: In my opinion, there are few key factors which differentiates Cisco as an information age company than of an IndustrialRead MoreThe City Of Memphis Information Services1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMemphis Information Services, (IS). The City of Memphis has existing and emerging technologies in government operations, and its delivery of services to the public. The IS works to improve City government efficiency through technology and to make communications with the City uncomplicated and clear. The vision of the IS is to be recognized as a leading provider of innovative IT solutions for municipal services. The mission statement is: Ã¢â¬Å"Collaborate with City divisions in leveraging technology whichRead MoreThe Importance Of A Technologist Has Changed1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthan todayÃ¢â¬ . This is the principle I live by, and after spending nearly 8 years in the Information Technology industry and having worked for two of the most prestigious organizations in the United States and in India, IÃ¢â¬â¢m now ready to maximize my potential to the fullest. Today, the role of a technologist has changed. A technologist is likely to be a manager who has to implement new practices and new technology and often engage in man management and decision making. My growing seniority in the industryRead MoreThe Impact Of Information Technology On Us995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesall the administration by hand. Now, we have the same process as a backup, in case electricity goes off and we could not use technology. Today, we have changed to way we save and secure information. We have improved quality and performance. We have changed the learning process, and even the way we socially interact. These changes came from the use of information technology, and because of all the resources and methods of learning that this provides, we have seen success in people that can masterRead MoreInformation Technology Systems Primary Responsibility1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Information Technol ogy systems primary responsibility is to maintain and sustain the organization network and communications operations. Although, they specialize in a particular field, they combine experiences and resources to support the IT department. The functional areas support the IT department which in turns support the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, vision, and goals. Mission: Planning, managing, synchronizing, and directing the Information Technology system communication operations with the
Friday, May 15, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Dont interfere with anything in the Constitution. That must be maintained, for it is the only safeguard of our liberties.Ã¢â¬ Abraham Lincoln made this statement in referring to the emancipation of the slaves. Even though the statement has nothing to deal with the Fourth Amendment, or the Search and Seizure laws within the Constitution, what is stated still brings about a good point relating to the Constitution. The fact being brought out of this quote is that the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to safeguard AmericansÃ¢â¬â¢ liberties. Along with great points brings questions regarding the quote. Should individuals interfere with the Constitution, more specifically the amendments and rights pertaining to search and seizure laws? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The English case became a guide that helped the framers of the United States of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Constitution in establishing this amendment. At the time of writing, the only valid solution to a n illegal search and seizure was a law-suit to gain money to pay for damages caused (Meese 3). Within the colonies, the only purpose to conduct searches and seizures was for the sole reason that colonists were smuggling in goods following the taxation from the English crown. In cases regarding colonial smugglers, James Otis was able to defend on the basis of the Ã¢â¬Å"writs of assistanceÃ¢â¬ (Meese 3). The founding fathers became aware of the issues of unreasonable searches and seizures, thus establishing the Fourth Amendment. To govern this amendments activity, a body of law was established by our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s courts on the levels of state and federal (Meese 3). Following the establishment of the Fourth Amendment brought complication. The complications can best be described as Ã¢â¬Å"Fruits of the Poisonous Tree.Ã¢â¬ The expression Ã¢â¬Ëfruit of the poisonous treeÃ¢â¬â¢ is a set term in Anglo-American common law. It stands in the context of unlawful investigations, searches and seizures and the question of whether Ã¢â¬ËneutralÃ¢â¬â¢ information can be admissible in court preceding. (Beyer 2) To explain further, the tree is symbolized as theShow MoreRelatedAbraham Lincoln: Organizational Culture and Leadership5118 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesstudents as professionals. 3. Behaviour Patterns The ICBS Staff is a team of highly dedicated and experienced individuals whose service to current and prospective students is unmatched. Their behaviors and attitudes are guided by the theme of Ã¢â¬ËWe look forward to serving you and providing you with a supportive and friendly serviceÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore, they operate as a team rather than as an administrative staff, thus are passionate about assisting students and remains guided by one basic principle:Read MoreQuaid E Azam3263 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesHamzah Ahmad Jan 12 B Sir Giscard El khowry Feb-22-2009 Final Draft Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah My Topic is about any Leader, so In this world there are many leaders. We know most of them, but my essay is about Ã¢â¬Å"Quaid-e-AzamÃ¢â¬ . He was a Great politician and statesman of 20th century. He was generally known as the father of state of Pakistan. He was the leader of The Muslim League and served as the first Governor General ofRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pageskeeping an eye on the sorts of arguments found in books on formal logic Ã¢â¬â forget, or underplay, how much of our daily reasoning is concerned not with arguments leading to truth-valued conclusions but with making choices, assessing reasons, seeking advice, etc. Dowden gets the balance and the emphasis right. Norman Swartz, Simon Fraser University v Acknowledgments For the 1993 edition: The following friends and colleagues deserve thanks for their help and encouragement with this project:
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (AD) a neurodegenerative disease that affects memory, thinking and behavior and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Approximately 1 in 4 people that reach the age 80-84 are expected to develop AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, and it is expected to affect 30-40 million people worldwide by the year 2050 (Steele, et. al, 2006). This disease is not a normal part of aging. However, the risk of onset increases with age, as well as underlying inflammatory processes. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a progressive disease with the most common reported system being difficulty recalling newly learned information. As the disease progresses, an affected individual may experience disorientation, mood changes, behavior changes, confusion, memory loss, suspicion about family and friends, walking difficulty and an inability to carry on a conversation. Simultaneously, the brain of the affected individual develops increasing amounts of plaque (deposits of the protein beta-amylo id that form between neurons) and tangles (twisted fibers called tau that build inside neurons). These deposits interfere with neuron conduction and may lead to neuronal apoptosis. It is widely accepted that omega-3 fatty acids and brain health have a positive relationship. Therefore, we wanted to analyze a diet that was high in this essential nutrient to determine itsÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease prevention. One diet in particular, the Mediterranean diet (characteristic of Greek cuisine), isShow MoreRelatedThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesengulfed by a mysterious disease. The neurons being cut off and destroyed by two abnormal structures. First memory is affected gradually getting worse. Then one is unable to think properly, reason, and lacks of self control. Gaps are formed in the brain s ventricles, due to the amount of dead tissue. In the end, it will lead to death. All of this may sound like something from a science fiction movie but infact its very real. These are all known possible symptoms of a common disease that affects aboutRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesone th ing Alzheimer s cannot take away, and that is love. Love is not a memory - it s a feeling that resides in your heart and soul.Ã¢â¬ (Fade to Blank). The human brain is a remarkably complex organ that processes, stores, and recalls information. Ã¢â¬Å"Alzheimer s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. Many scientists believe that Alzheimer s disease resultsRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease And Disease935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. This disease is commonly found in the elderly. This explains why people assume older people have a bad memory. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s does not occur in a short period of time, it typically takes months to develop. It involves gradual memory loss due to two specific protein fragments that spread to different parts of the brain killing brain cells as they go. As mentioned in the article Alzheim erÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease Fact Sheet (2015), Dr. Alois Alzheimer first discovered the disease by noticing somethingRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperson knows well, or asking questions continuously can be signs of a more serious problem. It is a disease of the brain that started slowly and gets worse as the time progresses. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a progressive destroying of brain tissue that primarily strikes people over the age of 65. Brain functions such as memory, comprehension, and speech deteriorate. The term first introduced by Dr. Alois Alzheimers in 1906. Memory is lost first. As days passes, attention tends to distracted, simple calculationsRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease Essay1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a degenerative brain disease that is seen in the elderly. It is the most common form of dementia, which is a general term for memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere w ith daily life (AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease Dementia). AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is one of the leading causes of death in America. Dementia and AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s have been around for centuries, but AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t first described until 1906 by Dr. Aloysius Alzheimer. In the past, there was aRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is the 6th leading cause of death in America. It kills more than breast cancer and prostate cancer combined. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s accounts for 70-80% of dementia cases. By the age of 65, 1 in 9 people are diagnosed and by the age of 85, 1 in 3 people will have the disease. According to the Alzheimer Association, 5 million people in American have AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s starts to form 20 years prior to being diagnosed. Learning about AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s can help familiesRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : Disease1759 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease Madison Lollar Psychology 1030-C62 Volstate Community College Word Count: 1,589 AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease: When it comes to AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, I know firsthand how it affects individuals and their families. My great grandfather had AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s for many years before his passing late last year, at age 92. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a disease that many individuals suffer with each year, but yet with all the advancements in modern medicine we still have no cure for it. There are differentRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease1385 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe disease stem cells could fix is called AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease (AD). The reason I chose this topic is because I have seen first hand how badly someone who suffers from AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease is affected in their daily lives. This disease completely takes over their lives and they turn into a completely different person who can hardly function. AD is very tough on the loved ones of the person suffering from it because that person, most of the time has no idea what is going on or who their loved onesRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : A Disease1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages10, 2015 AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Disease AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s is a disease in the brain that affects a personÃ¢â¬â¢s memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common form of dementia and is common in adults older than 65. More than five million Americans are being affected by AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s at this moment. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s comes in three stages; early, middle, and advanced. The disease is caused by the shrinking of the brain due to many risk factors and genetics. Dementia and AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease are often confused becauseRead MoreThe Disease Of Alzheimer s Disease2364 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages1. Introduction AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease is a prominent brain disease that effects a massive amount of individuals in the United States. AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 60-80% of dementia cases, with no chance of being cured, prevented or decelerating over time (AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s Association, 2014). AD is the most well-known form of dementia, causing complications in brain function in the areas of memory, thinking, and behavior (AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Engage in personal development in children and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s settings Being a Nursery worker involves a lot of hard work and dedication. We have many roles and responsibilities to follow to help provide a safe and careering environment for the children. They are as followed: * Welcoming the children and liaising with parents * Providing a safe and caring environment by doing safety checks, risk assessments * Weekly planning which is taken from a midterm plan to meet each childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs * Observations, Key-persons plans, 5 minute observations which all link with the plan to help each childÃ¢â¬â¢s development individually. Talking to and interacting with the children to stimulate their development * Providing meals and snacks and assisting them to eat, and also encouraging personal hygiene * Completing paperwork, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s files and keeping records (storing them away safely) * Maintain the cleanliness amp; hygiene of the rooms, toilet facilities and toys (sterilizing weekly) * Working and communicating closely with other staff at the nursery showing good team work. We will write a custom essay sample on Engage in Personal Development in Children and Young PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Settings or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page All staff are required to follow policies and procedures to make sure we comply with the various standards which help us provide the right care for the children. In our nursery we follow the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS). We use this to help when recording children observations in their own personal folders, we also use this to monitor how the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development is progressing and whether they are on target for their age group or if they may need support in certain areas, we also use the EYFS to help when doing midterm plans and weekly plans. All childcare providers caring for children from birth to 5 must register with Ofsted on the Early Years Register (EYR). All providers on this register must deliver the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), which sets the standards for early learning, development and care. We are also expected to support children with learning or behavior disabilities and support children who are bilingual. Reflecting on our practices enables us to recognise where we are doing well and areas where improvement may be needed. This is important as it ensures we are performing to our best ability and also to ensure that we are meeting all standards and expectations within the nurseryÃ¢â¬â¢s policies and procedures. We must reflect on our practices because every child is different, they have different needs, expectations and interests. When looking back over the week, staff can discuss where they feel there is room for improvement and this can help each child reach his/her maximum potential and goals. It also helps staff improve their practices as they update their knowledge and skills, they can do this by attending different training courses, talking with parents/carers and other colleagues. In our setting we demonstrate many ways of reflective practice. Once the weekly plan is done each day we closely observe the children to see the areas they did and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t enjoy, we do this by writing observations, observing a child for at least 5 minutes. At the end of the day staff are expected to evaluate the day and speak about things they felt could have been done better such as the layout of the room or how staff did a certain activity, all these things help improve staffs abilities. Weekly learning intentions are also set; staff should look back and discuss whether they felt the learning intentions were met. Staff can * question why things are done * be ready to look at ideas and then adapt them in work contrasting ways * observe and learn from the children * Be aware of and focus on issues. All these things can help a setting progress in many ways and help the development of the children. Having our own values, belief systems and experiences can affect our working practices. Everybody was brought up differently and follow different religions. This can show in the way staffs do daily things such as meal times, settling in and dealing with the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour. If a person is brought up in a loving and affectionate environment its more likely that, that person is going to be the same way towards other, where as if a person was neglected as a child and not shown much affection they as a person may find it hard to show the feelings and be a caring person. Peoples religions may affect the way they behave in a work environment for example Muslim people do not eat pork so this may mean Muslim staff may not be able to serve children pork as it is against their religion. This is where staff work together to help each other out. If you have only worked in one child care setting you may not have a lot of experience and only know one way of working with children, this is why it is good to visit other settings to see different approaches and speak with different practitioners this helps us to avoid being narrow minded.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
A Brief History of the Pledge of Allegiance The U.S. Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag was written in 1892 by then 37-year-old minister Francis Bellamy. The original version of BellamyÃ¢â¬â¢s pledge read, Ã¢â¬Å"I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic, for which it stands,- one nation, indivisible- with liberty and justice for all.Ã¢â¬ By not specifying to which flag or which republic allegiance was being pledged, Bellamy suggested that his pledge could be used by any country, as well as the United States. Bellamy wrote his pledge for inclusion in the Boston-published Youths Companion magazine Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Best of American Life in Fiction Fact and Comment.Ã¢â¬ The pledge was also printed on leaflets and sent to schools throughout the United States at the time. The first recorded organized recital of the original Pledge of Allegiance took place on Oct. 12, 1892, when some 12 million American school children recited it to commemorate the 400-year anniversary of the voyage of Christopher Columbus. Despite its widespread public acceptance at the time, important changes to the Pledge of Allegiance as written by Bellamy were on the way. Change In Consideration of Immigrants By the early 1920s, the first National Flag Conference (source of the U.S. Flag Code), the American Legion, and the Daughters of the American Revolution all recommended changes to the Pledge of Allegiance intended to clarify its meaning when recited by immigrants. These changes addressed concerns that since the pledge as then written failed to mention the flag of any specific country, immigrants to the United States might feel that they were pledging allegiance to their native country, rather than the U.S., when reciting the Pledge. So in 1923, the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"myÃ¢â¬ was dropped from the pledge and the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"the FlagÃ¢â¬ was added, resulting in, Ã¢â¬Å"I pledge allegiance to the Flag and Republic, for which it stands,- one nation, indivisible- with liberty and justice for all.Ã¢â¬ A year later, the National Flag Conference, in order to completely clarify issue, added the words Ã¢â¬Å"of America,Ã¢â¬ resulting in, Ã¢â¬Å"I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands,- one nation, indivisible- with liberty and justice for all.Ã¢â¬ Change in Consideration of God In 1954, the Pledge of Allegiance underwent its most controversial change to date. With the threat of Communism looming, President Dwight Eisenhower pressed Congress to add the words Ã¢â¬Å"under GodÃ¢â¬ to the pledge.Ã In advocating for the change, Eisenhower declared it would Ã¢â¬Å"reaffirm the transcendence of religious faith in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage and futureÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"strengthen those spiritual weapons which forever will be our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful resource in peace and war.Ã¢â¬ On June 14, 1954, in a Joint Resolution amending a section of the Flag Code, Congress created the Pledge of Allegiance recited by most Americans today: Ã¢â¬Å"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.Ã¢â¬ What About Church and State? Over the decades since 1954, there have been legal challenges to the constitutionality of the inclusion of Ã¢â¬Å"under GodÃ¢â¬ in the pledge. Most notably, in 2004, when an avowed atheist sued the Elk Grove (California) Unified School District claiming that its pledge recital requirement violated his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s rights under the First AmendmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Establishment and Free Exercise Clauses. In deciding the case of Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, the U.S.Ã Supreme Court failed to rule on the question of the words Ã¢â¬Å"under GodÃ¢â¬ violating the First Amendment. Instead, the Court ruled that the plaintiff, Mr. Newdow, did not have legal standing to file the suit because he lacked sufficient custody of his daughter. However, Chief Justice William Rehnquist and Justices Sandra Day OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Clarence Thomas wrote separate opinions on the case, stating that requiring teachers to lead the Pledge was constitutional. In 2010, two federal appeals courts ruled in a similar challenge that Ã¢â¬Å"the Pledge of Allegiance does not violate the Establishment Clause because CongressÃ¢â¬â¢ ostensible and predominant purpose was to inspire patriotismÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"both the choice to engage in the recitation of the Pledge and the choice not to do so are entirely voluntary.Ã¢â¬ Ã Pledge of Allegiance Timeline September 18, 1892: Francis BellamyÃ¢â¬â¢s pledge is published in Ã¢â¬Å"The Youths CompanionÃ¢â¬ magazine to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America. October 12, 1892: The pledge is first recited in American schools.Ã Ã 1923: The original wording Ã¢â¬Å"my FlagÃ¢â¬ is replaced by Ã¢â¬Å"the flag of the United States of America.Ã¢â¬ 1942: The pledge is officially recognized by the U.S. government. 1943: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that requiring a person to say the pledge is a violation of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution.Ã June 14, 1954: At the request of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Congress adds Ã¢â¬Å"under GodÃ¢â¬ to the pledge. 1998: Atheist Michael Newdow files suit against the school board of Broward County, Florida to get the phrase under God removed from the pledge. The suit is dismissed. 2000: Newdow files a lawsuit against Elk Grove Unified School District in California arguing that forcing students to listen to the words under GodÃ¢â¬ is a violation of the First Amendment. The case reaches the Supreme Court in 2004, where it is dismissed. 2005: Joined by parents in the Sacramento, California, area, Newdow files a new lawsuit seeking to have the phrase under God from the Pledge of Allegiance. In 2010, the 9th Circuit US Court of Appeals denies NewdowÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal finding that the pledge does not represent a government endorsement of religion, as prohibited by the Constitution. May 9, 2014: The Massachusetts Supreme Court rules that because reciting the Pledge of Allegiance is a patriotic, rather than a religious, exercise, saying the words Ã¢â¬Å"under GodÃ¢â¬ does not discriminate against atheists.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
German Battleship Bismarck in World War II Bismarck was the first of two Bismarck-class battleships that were ordered for the Kriegsmarine in the years prior to World War II. Built by Blohm and Voss, the battleship mounted a main battery of eight 15 guns and was capable of a top speed of over 30 knots. Quickly identified as a threat by the Royal Navy, efforts to track Bismarck were underway after its commissioning in August 1940. Ordered on its first mission into the Atlantic the following year, Bismarck won a victory over HMS Hood at the Battle of the Denmark Strait, but soon came under a combined attack by British ships and aircraft. Damaged by an aerial torpedo, Bismarck was sunk by British surface ships on May 27, 1941. Design In 1932, German naval leaders requested a series of battleship designs intended to fit within the 35,000 ton limit imposed on leading maritime nations by the Washington Naval Treaty.Ã Initial work began on what became the Bismarck-class the following year and initially centered around an armament of eight 13 guns and a top speed of 30 knots. In 1935, the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement accelerated German efforts as it allowed the Kriegsmarine to build up to 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy. Additionally, it bound the Kriegsmarine to the Washington Naval Treaty tonnage restrictions. Increasingly concerned about Frances naval expansion, German designers sought to create a new type of battleship that would out-class the newer French vessels. Design work moved forward with debates ensuing over the caliber of the main battery, type of propulsion system, and thickness of the armor.Ã These were further complicated in 1937 with the departure of Japan from the treaty system and implementation of an escalator clause that increased the tonnage limit to 45,000 tons. When German designers learned that the new French Richelieu-class would mount 15 guns, the decision was made use similar weapons in four two-gun turrets. This battery was supplemented by a secondary battery of twelve 5.9 (150 mm) guns. Several means of propulsion were considered including turbo-electric, diesel geared, and steam drives. After assessing each, turbo-electric drive was initially favored as it had proven effective aboard the American Lexington-class aircraft carriers. Construction As construction moved forward, the new class propulsion came to beÃ geared turbine engines turning three propellers. For protection, the new class mounted an armor belt ranging in thickness from 8.7 to 12.6. This area of the ship was further protected by 8.7 armored, transverse bulkheads. Elsewhere, armor for the conning tower was 14 on the sides and 7.9 on the roof. The armor scheme reflected the German approach of maximizing protection while maintaining stability. Ordered under the nameÃ Ersatz Hannover, the lead ship of the new class, Bismarck, was laid down at Blohm Voss in Hamburg on July 1, 1936. The first name served as an indication that the new vessel was replacing the old pre-dreadnought Hannover. Sliding down the ways on February 14, 1939, the new battleship was sponsored byÃ Dorothee von LÃ ¶wenfeld, granddaughter of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck would be followed a second battleship of its class, Tirpitz, in 1941. Fast Facts: Battleship Bismarck General Nation: Nazi GermanyType: BattleshipShipyard: Blohm Voss, HamburgLaid Down: July 1, 1936Launched: February 14, 1939Commissioned: August 24, 1940Fate: Sunk in action, May 27, 1941 Specifications Displacement: 45,451 tonnesLength: 450.5mBeam (Width): 36mDraft:: 9.3-10.2mPropulsion: 12 High-pressure Wagner boilers powering 3 Blohm Voss geared turbines at 150,170 horsepowerSpeed: 30.8 knotsRange: 8,525 nautical miles at 19 knots, 4,500 nautical miles at 28 knotsComplement: 2,092: 103 officers, 1,989 enlisted Armament Guns 8Ãâ"380 mm/L48.5 SK-C/34 (4 turrets with 2 guns each)12Ãâ"150 mm/L55 SK-C/2816Ãâ"105 mm/L65 SK-C/37 / SK-C/3316Ãâ"37 mm/L83 SK-C/3012Ãâ"20 mm/L65 MG C/30 (Single)8Ãâ"20 mm/L65 MG C/38 (Quadruple) Aircraft 4Ãâ" Arado Ar 196 A-3 seaplanes, using 1 double-ended catapult Early Career Commissioned in August 1940, with CaptainÃ Ernst Lindemann in command, Bismarck departed Hamburg to conduct sea trials in Kiel Bay.Ã Testing of the ships armament, power plant, and seakeeping abilities continued through the fall in the relative safety of the Baltic Sea. Arriving at Hamburg in December, the battleship entered the yard for repairs and alterations. Though scheduled to return to Kiel in January, a wreck in the Kiel Canal prevented this from occurring until March. Finally reaching the Baltic, Bismarck resumed training operations. With World War II underway, the German Kriegsmarine envisioned using Bismarck as a raider to attack British convoys in the North Atlantic. With its 15 guns, the battleship would be able to strike from a distance, inflicting maximum damage while placing itself at minimal risk. Bismarck, photographed from Prinz Eugen, in the Baltic at the outset of Operation RheinÃ ¼bung, May 1941. Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1989-012-03 / Lagemann / CC-BY-SA 3.0 The battleships first mission in this role was dubbed Operation RheinÃ ¼bung (Exercise Rhine) and proceeded under the command ofÃ Vice Admiral GÃ ¼nter LÃ ¼tjens. Sailing in tandem with the cruiser Prinz Eugen, Bismarck departed Norway on May 22, 1941, and headed towards the shipping lanes. Aware of Bismarcks departure, the Royal Navy had begun moving ships to intercept. Steering north and west, Bismarck headed for the Denmark Strait between Greenland and Iceland. Battle of the Denmark Straight Entering the strait, Bismarck was detected by the cruisers HMS Norfolk and HMS Suffolk which called for reinforcements. Responding were the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser HMS Hood. The two intercepted the Germans at the south end of the strait on the morning of May 24. Less than 10 minutes after the ships opened fire, Hood was struck in one of its magazines causing an explosion that blew the ship in half. Unable to take on both German ships alone, Prince of Wales broke off the fight. During the battle, Bismarck was hit in a fuel tank, causing a leak and forcing a reduction in speed (Map). Bismarck fires on HMS Prince of Wales during the Battle of the Denmark Strait. Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1984-055-13 Sink the Bismarck! Unable to continue with his mission, LÃ ¼tjens ordered Prinz Eugen to continue on while he turned the leaking Bismarck toward France. On the night of May 24, aircraft from the carrier HMS Victorious attacked with little effect. Two days later aircraft from HMS Ark Royal scored a hit, jamming Bismarcks rudder. Unable to maneuver, the ship was forced to steam in a slow circle while awaiting the arrival of the British battleships HMS King George V and HMS Rodney. They were sighted the following morning and Bismarcks final battle commenced. Bismarck burning in the distance as HMS Rodney (right) fires, May 27, 1941. Public Domain Assisted by the heavy cruisers HMS Dorsetshire and Norfolk, the two British battleships pummeled the stricken Bismarck, knocking its guns out of action and killing most of the senior officers on board. After 30 minutes, the cruisers attacked with torpedoes. Unable to resist further, Bismarcks crew scuttled the ship to prevent its capture. British ships raced in to pick up the survivors and rescued 110 before a U-boat alarm forced them to leave the area. Close to 2,000 German sailors were lost.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Ethical issues with the artificial intelligence of computers - Research Paper Example Additionally, to the level that ethics is a rational recreation, the artificial intelligence could easily outstrip human beings in the value of its ethical thinking. Therefore, it is the role of the AI designer to cite its initial motivation. Since the artificial intelligence may turn out to be inevitably influential due to its intellectual power and the technologies it could invent, it is should be provided with people friendly motivations. Discussion Artificial intelligence of the computer is a computer science field responsible for inventing machines that can participate in intelligent attributes. The capacity to invent intelligent devices has intrigued people since the traditional times, and currently with the creation of the computer, and several decades of study in the artificial intelligence programming techniques, the vision of intelligent devices are becoming a reality, (Poole & Mackworth, 2010). Additionally, researchers are inventing intelligent systems that can impersonat e human thought, comprehend speech, outstrip the most intelligent human chess player and various other innovations never before possible. With these significant creations of artificial intelligence computers or machines, fascinating concerns have emerged. For instance, computer scientists, sociologists, psychologists and anthropologists are concerned about the future and ethical implications of these advanced creations. Emerging concerns includes, first, will the value of human life advance with development of artificial intelligence or not? What are possible ethical implications of artificial intelligence of computers? Finally, what beneficial types of artificial intelligence should be invented and how they are applied? This paper seeks to investigate and provide solutions to these concerns. Artificial intelligence of computers seeks to enhance and promote the value of human life. Various positive results in the modern society can emanate with the utilization of artificial intellig ence. For instance, intensive production and indirect reduced costs of production are evident in factories, industries and production lines. Operations better suited for machines have reduced errors and enhanced efficiency, for instance, the capacity to detect fraud and credit, (Berlatsky, 2011). Additionally, American Express and other institutions have invented an authoritarian assistant, which utilizes artificial intelligence to assess whether; a transaction is short of character for a card code. The authority assistant system is highly accurate compared to manual system, and it saves more time. Also, this and various, infinite other opportunities exist for employing artificial intelligence of devices to enhance efficiency. Artificial intelligence systems are being utilized to substitute human efforts in dangerous conditions. Artificial intelligence can withstand radioactive aspects and operate efficiently in conditions where there is restricted space and inadequate oxygen to inh ale. This alternative will alleviate unwarranted life losses because of possible accidents and unsecure conditions. In addition, artificial intelligence seeks to enhance the lives of old people. Experts agree that due to human demand to participate in their work, the attention and care for old people at home has declined, and the percentage requiring nursing attention has